This is where CAD comes to the fore. CAD is used to design, develop and optimize products.
While it is very versatile, CAD is extensively used in the design of tools and equipment required in the manufacturing process as well as in the construction domain. CAD enables design engineers to layout and to develop their work on a computer screen, print and save it for future editing. When it was introduced first, CAD was not exactly an economic proposition because the machines at those times were very costly.
CAD is used to accomplish preliminary design and layouts, design details and calculations, creating 3-D models, creating and releasing drawings, as well as interfacing with analysis, marketing, manufacturing, and end-user personnel.
CAD facilitates the manufacturing process by transferring detailed information about a product in an automated form that can be universally interpreted by trained personnel. It can be used to produce either two-dimensional or three-dimensional diagrams.
The use of CAD software tools allow the object to be viewed from any angle, even from the inside looking out. One of the main advantages of a CAD drawing is that the editing is a fast process as compared to manual method. Apart from detailed engineering of 2D or 3D models, CAD is widely used from conceptual design and layout of products to definition of manufacturing of components. CAD reduces design time by allowing precise simulation rather than build and test physical prototypes.
CAD is currently widely used for industrial products, animated movies and other applications. A special printer or plotter is usually required for printing professional design renderings. CAD programs use either vector-based graphics or raster graphics that show how an object will look. Today, the use of CAD has permeated almost all industries. Gap between 3D model and real objects will further narrow, 3D models will look realistically and what is even more important, they will behave as in reality.
Virtual prototypes are reality in high tech environments, today. In future this principle will spread even to low end 3D applications, and will become more precise on high end ones. In some cases prototyping and tests will be skipped altogether.
CAD systems will continue in the trend of specialization. In the future we will see more task oriented and highly specialized CADs. However general purpose CADs will not disappear, they will have more functions integrated analysis, kinematics and simulations , yet they will be easier to use. For example one second of high resolution.
Many commercial and proprietary programs have their strong open source alternatives. In future there may be a strong open source CAD solution.
In the construction industry the de-facto standard is AutoCAD for 2D drawings, however this is rapidly being superseded by 3D parametric programs such as Autodesk Inventor For manufacturing and Revit For Architectural design. Naturally enough, none of this functionality has been removed, with the result that AutoCAD now has both a modern graphical interface and a less pretty but far more flexible command line system. AutoCAD uses two forms of text entry, single line and multiline. An extremely important aspect of the layers window are the columns for Color, Linetype and Lineweight. This, combined with AutoCAD's demonstrated portability, allows Autodesk to provide a compatible solution to the CAD industry on systems ranging from briefcase to room size.
Development of hardware and software for both rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing will change manufacturing, marketing and business processes. Improvements of hardware like 3D printers , laser and metal sintering will enable to produce complex parts effectively even in small series and from various materials like plastics, textile, ceramics or metal. Products will be bought in the form of license, 3D model will be downloaded from Internet and manufactured on hardware connected to computer in local store or even at home.
Time needed for delivering product to market will be further decreased.
This project will evolve into new representation of 3D models. Instead of 2D representations of 3D objects there will be real 3D models build in bottom-up manner.
Many versatile little building blocks will form larger objects like car model according to computer program. This concept is also known as Claytronics. Genetic programming GP is machine learning technique that uses an evolutionary algorithm to optimize a population of designs according to a fitness landscape determined by a design ability to perform a given computational task. GP has been successfully used for development computer programs, electronic circuits and antennas.
GP technique will be used for design of complex products which consists of many parts, but limited in number of types.
Engineering Drawing from First Principles. Using AutoCad. Book • Authors: Dennis Maguire. Browse book content. About the book. Search in this book. Engineering Drawing from First Principles, part of the Revision and Self- Assessment series, is written for students commencing University.
Later will come new manufacturing processes similar to protein creation in ribosome , where 3D protein complex structures are based on only 20 building blocks amino acids. Computer program will serve like DNA, manufacturing hardware will serve as ribosome and one machine will be able to manufacture wide range of different products. Category : Computer-aided design. Namespaces Resource Discuss.